Semi-machined components begin as rough dimension blanks and are carried one or more steps further in the manufacturing process. These processes can include surfacing, gluing, finger-jointing, tenoning, trimming, shaping, mortising and routing. Examples of semi-machined components include edge-glued panels, solid and laminated squares, and cabinet frames. Fully machined components are parts that are completely machined with no additional work necessary prior to assembly. Examples of fully machined components include cabinet and kitchen doors, table and chair legs, staircase spindles, table tops and mouldings.
For the domestic market in the USA the industry produces a wide range of products specifically to customer order, as well as standard ranges of building and joinery components. In the main, manufacturers are able to utilise the lower grades of lumber, using equipment and technology such as optimisers that can help to maximise yields, without losing product flexibility. Yield is also improved by techniques such as edge gluing and finger jointing, with the added benefit of improving the stability of the end product. Edge-glued and finger-jointed components are widely accepted throughout the American domestic market and are gaining in popularity in several export markets.
Product grades tend to be set by individual producers and are appearance-based, incorporating many of the criteria used for lumber grading. Hardwood dimension and components buyers are encouraged to follow the guidelines set out in the Wood Components Manufacturers Association 'Rules and Specifications for Dimension and Woodwork'. These guidelines are established as a basis for common understanding between the manufacturer, distributor, exporter and user when specifying dimension and components.